Archives for January 2022

January 31, 2022 - No Comments!

Can a Breach of Contract Be Verbal

An oral contract cannot be enforceable if its purpose falls under the Fraud Act. The reason for this is that contracts subject to the Fraud Act require a signed letter. Here are some examples that show when it may be necessary to have a written agreement: And finally, a document that is not the contract, but is signed by the party who rejects it and admits that a contract has been concluded, can create a binding contract, even if the underlying contract was oral: A classic example taught in law schools concerns a contract where a man paid his nephew not to drink alcohol. for a while, hoping that the nephew would become more serious in business. Since the nephew could drink legally, his renunciation of this right continued in return. The above quotes are only a small part of the law and extensive regulations that relate to the applicability of oral contracts in California. Suffice it to note that anyone who considers that a binding oral agreement may exist should seek the competent legal assistance in determining whether that is the case and should not presume that only a written pleading can bind the parties, even in areas normally prescribed in writing. That doesn`t mean it`s impossible. With the help of an experienced lawyer, you can prove the terms of the agreement in court and prove that the contract has been violated. If your oral agreement is unenforceable for any reason, especially if it violates the Fraud Act, it does not necessarily mean that you do not have recourse. Although you may not be able to enforce the specific terms of your original agreement, you may be able to pursue a so-called "equity" remedy in court.

If you have an oral contract that needs to be enforced in Massachusetts, Katz Law Group can help you ensure that the terms of your agreement are met and that you receive the compensation to which you are entitled. Contact us today for a consultation. Our lawyers represent companies in Worcester, Marlborough, Framingham and beyond. 1623. If a contract which is required by law to be in writing is prevented from being written by the fraud of a party, any other party who has come to the conclusion that the fraud is in writing and acts to its detriment on the basis of the conviction may execute it against the fraudulent party. To the surprise of many California citizens, oral or oral contracts in this state can be fully enforceable in many circumstances. California`s Civil Code specifically prohibits certain contracts from being oral – they must be in writing. But with the exceptions listed below, an oral contract can be performed in this state. (B) A contract (with the exception of a contract for the purchase of goods for future delivery or subject to the rules of a contract contract or chamber of commerce) for the purchase, sale or transfer of a good or good, article, service, right or similar interest that is currently or in the future devoid of purpose becomes the subject of a forward transaction; or a product or by-product thereof whose expiry date is more than two days after the date of conclusion of the contract. While these following factors are not necessary to enter into a valid oral agreement, it is generally recommended that the parties include them, as they can be useful if they need to prove that an oral contract exists: In the modern business context, it is unusual for large transactions to be concluded without being recorded in writing. However, there is still reluctance, and handshake chords and verbal chords still exist. (7) A contract, promise, undertaking or obligation to borrow money or to grant or renew loans of more than one hundred thousand dollars ($100,000) that are not primarily for personal, family or household purposes and that are entered into by a person engaged in the lending business or lending money or granting loans.

For the purposes of this Division, contracts, promises, obligations or commitments of loans to funds secured solely by residential property consisting of one to four residential units are deemed to be for personal, family or household purposes. In many contractual situations, a written contract may exist originally, but the parties agree to amend one or more clauses orally. If this is the case, the oral amendment to the contract will be treated as an oral contract and will be subject to the same restrictions and enforceable as other oral contracts. 1622. All contracts may be entered into orally, unless they are expressly required in writing by law. An oral contract is an oral agreement between the parties that is sometimes legally binding. One problem that arises when proving an oral contract is the lack of hard evidence. All contracts, whether oral, written or implied, contain certain elements that must be considered valid. Courts don`t like fraud and tend to enforce contracts when they find that one of the parties has somehow "deceived" the other party to rely on a promise. As can be seen in our article on contracts, conditions such as the renunciation and confiscation of promissory notes can be used to conclude a binding agreement, even if the formalities are not respected. Oral contracts are generally considered valid as written contracts, although this depends on the jurisdiction and often the nature of the contract.

In some jurisdictions, certain types of contracts must be drafted to be considered legally binding. For example, a contract for the transfer of real estate must be drafted in a legally binding manner. An oral agreement is a contract, even if it is not made in writing. Assuming the contract is valid, it is a binding agreement between two parties. Although some oral contracts are considered enforceable, they are problematic and complicated. The offer or counter-offer must then be accepted. Acceptance takes place when a party agrees to be obliged to comply with the terms of the offer. .

January 31, 2022 - No Comments!

Buyers Agency Agreement Colorado

A Buyer`s agent "works exclusively on behalf of the Buyer to promote the Buyer`s interests with the utmost good faith, loyalty and loyalty. The agent negotiates on behalf of the buyer and acts as a lawyer for him. A written "buying agency contract is required" so that a real estate agent can pay attention to your interesting interests. A trading broker "supports the buyer or seller, or both. without being an agent or lawyer for either party. No written agreement is required. When a Colorado real estate agent acts as a "transaction broker," they can`t pay attention to your interesting interests. You become more of a referee than a coach who wants you to succeed at every stage of the transaction. They are unable to advise and advise you, promote and protect your best interests, tell you the reasons not to buy, negotiate the best price and conditions for you, or help write an offer in your best interest. Under Colorado law, the real estate licensee is required to disclose the nature of the employment relationship (transaction broker, selling agent, or buyer agent) and the level of service they provide. In other words, if you are not immediately comfortable signing an agreement, the broker must provide you with a written document that clearly defines the roles of a transactional broker vis-à-vis an agent. As a broker, their role is limited to presenting you with facts and filling out forms.

Singing the buyer`s agent contract is the real estate equivalent of "walking regularly." Your agent is committed to doing the best job for you and giving you what you need. In return, you agree to only work with your agent so that they end up getting paid when you finally buy a house. Remember, this is a legal document and I am not a lawyer. I am also a first home buyer to share my experience. If you have any questions about the agreement or would like to meet with a buyer`s representative, click here. Buyer Brokerage Disclosure (§ 12-61-808(2)) – This agency disclosure, which informs clients about the Colorado real estate relationship, must be reviewed and signed by the Buyer. The first three sections will determine the date, the type of representation (buying agency) and the type of company you will work with. The beauty of a buyer`s contract is that you can work with the agent to define the parameters of the agreement.

Your agent will have his normal conditions that he will request. Carefully review the agreement and ask questions about anything you don`t understand. A few things to keep in mind: There are several options outlined in the agreement: pass fees, hourly fees, or fees. The most common is the success fee. That is, if you successfully buy a house, the agent will be paid. This is usually a percentage of the purchase price of the home and is only paid if you actually buy the house. For example, 2.8% of the purchase price. Will your "agent" have your best interests in mind? Many buyers assume that apart from personality traits and experience, brokers are all the same. It`s no wonder so many people have had bad experiences with real estate agents. A big part of it comes down to whether or not the agent is an effective communicator. As a buyer, you can`t know everything related to a transaction and what to watch out for.

Therefore, you inspire confidence in the agent you work with to guide you through the process and who has your best interests in mind, right? But you know what? It`s becoming more and more common for agents not to have your best interests in mind. Let`s fix that, right? Colorado law requires disclosure by the agency to potential buyers. Each real estate agent must disclose the types of agencies through which they can represent you. If you do not sign a purchasing agency contract, you will NOT be represented. Don`t make this mistake. Consider your options and results. Here are some facts: Once you have reviewed certain properties with the agent and are confident that they are a good fit, it is reasonable for the agent to ask you to sign the buyer`s representation agreement to continue working together. Both parties invest a lot of time and energy, and you should want to protect this as much as the agent. Be respectful of the work that is done for you by not delaying this process. The agent wants to know if you are serious about buying a home, just as you want to know if the agent will do their best for you.


January 31, 2022 - No Comments!

Building Maintenance Contractors in Dubai

Water Seal Company LLC – a waterproofing company and contractor was founded in the early 90s with a clear vision, determination and motivation to play a leading role in the construction industry. Since its inception in 1990, Water Seal has built a reputation as a sealing company and contractor to become one of the leading sealing companies in the UAE. Building maintenance is carried out by a group of construction workers employed by an organization. They carry out repairs on the damaged areas of the structure and ensure that the building remains in good condition. Workers ensure that the building is safe for residents and analyze the damage caused by daily use. Types of maintenance services include contract repairs, annual repairs and specialized repairs. Some companies offer additional services to customers such as renovation, renovation, reorganization of furniture and polishing of wooden furniture. We have been operating in this core business since 1997 and in fifteen years we have acquired extensive experience in the various areas of building maintenance (sanitary-electrical-HVAC and cleaning) and facility management. In addition, in our quest to always strive for excellent service, we have developed our own unique standard operating procedure, which has proven effective for so many years to constantly meet the unique needs of our customers. Smart Point Technical Services L.L.C is a Dubai-based company that provides building maintenance, electrical installation, engineering and cleaning in residential, office and commercial spaces. Our team is made up of highly technical professionals who are trained in various languages such as English, Hindi, Arabic, Malayalam and Tamil and who are committed to providing the best service our company has to offer.

Planning, estimating, pool construction, landscaping, landscaping, water features, fountains, maintenance, lighting, leak detection, tile work, plants, garden fence, shade tents, pavilions, pergolas. Adams Care Technical Services is a professional and experienced air conditioner maintenance, property maintenance and HVAC maintenance company based in Dubai. We offer a unique range and a range of competitive annual maintenance contract options. MPL Building Maintenance LLC is a dedicated provider of maintenance services throughout Dubai, established and supported by property managers for residential and commercial clients in Dubai. MPL will stand out from the competition by offering: good and high quality services, good customer service and competitive prices. Together with our experienced technicians, we analyze, identify and evaluate maintenance issues and also create inspection reports for our customers. Most customer feedback on maintenance is related to customer management, coordination, inspection and delivery of work, which is one of our strengths as we have a team of fully trained and well-spoken engineers and maintenance technicians. Daily repair services include plumbing, electrical work, emergency repair work, etc. Building maintenance companies are working on routine repairs that remove dirt from clogged drainage pipes, wells, restoring water supply, replacing blown fuses, irrigation systems, lawn mowing and other similar applications.

Annual repairs help maintain the aesthetic appeal of the home, including bleaching, distemper, painting, tank cleaning, and more. These operations are carried out annually. Special repairs involve the replacement of existing parts of the structure that are worn due to aging, which helps in restoration and prevents deterioration of the structure. Building maintenance companies provide pest control services and various types of inspection services such as thermography inspection, infrared inspection, HVAC inspection, plumbing inspection, etc. Categories: Buildings & Houses Cleaning Services Buildings General Maintenance Cooling & Air Conditioning Decoration Work Design & Execution General Contractor All Types of Buildings Maintenance Services Metal Installation Subcontracting Oil and Gas Facilities & Field Services Water Project Contracts . More VFix Maintenance & Technical Services LLC was founded in 2015 with the aim of improving the commercial and residential maintenance and repair scene in the UAE and providing quality services at a good price-performance ratio. Our basic guiding principle is to organize a sector that is not very well represented in the UAE. We strive to ensure professional treatment in all large or small projects, residential or commercial. Our customer-oriented policy is based on long-term customer loyalty and total satisfaction. Our business areas cover all types of residential and commercial maintenance issues that landlords, tenants and SMEs regularly face.

Preventive maintenance aims to avoid damage that may result from reckless use, environmental factors, etc. Popular places to find companies that provide building maintenance services in the UAE include Salam Street Abu Dhabi, Rigga Street Deira Dubai, Silicon Oasis, Al Quasis Industrial Area 3 Dubai, Musaffah, Al Maktoum Street, SAIF Zone, Rolla and Industrial Area 13 Sharjah. Building Maintenance, Repairs and Restoration Facilities Management Maintenance And Pest Management Services Waste Management and Environmental Services Address: - M-02, Mina Tower, Mina Street, P.O. Box. 28364, Sharjah UAE Address: - P.O. Box 20916, Dubai, United Arab Emirates Office #30, Ground Floor, Warehouse, Al Quoz Industrial Zone Fourth Category: Fertilizer Gas Turbine Services Seals and Heat Exchanger Pack Heating Equipment and Systems Maintenance Services Minerals Oil Fields Contractors and Services Pressure Vessels Chemicals and Chemicals. More Farnek Services LLC / Farnek Middle East LLC, based in Dubai, has been based in the United Arab Emirates since 1980 and is an international full-service property management company. With a skilled workforce of over 8,000 employees, Farnek has now added offices in the Northern Emirates to its existing offices in Abu Dhabi and Dubai to provide professional FM services to more than 2,500 properties for world-renowned high-quality organizations such as Dubai Airport, Dubai Parks & Resorts, RAK Bank, United Arab Bank, DU Telecom, Dubai Mall and Dubai`s latest high-level mixed-use community.

Musanada, Ministry of Education, Etihad Airways, Yas Marina Circuit. Become a world-class company through dedicated focus, continuous innovation, technology, quality, safety and superior customer service. Categories: Electrical fittings Subcontracting Maintenance services Luminaires & luminaires Dealers Lighting fixtures Suppliers Electric lamps Manufacture of electrical equipment . Read more The team on board are so proud of the service they provide to their customers. We take the highest level of professionalism to a new level by offering various artisanal services in Dubai, Sharjah, UAE with so much commitment, dedication and enthusiasm. We only hire the best. Therefore, our customers can be sure that only the most credible and qualified craftsmen in Dubai, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates will take care of your projects with maintenance. Address: - P.O. Box 62291 AUH, Mazyad Mall, Office Tower 2, Unit 1003, Mohammed Bin Zayed City, Dubai United Arab Emirates Maintenance & Services Pest Control Services Categories: Building Maintenance, Repairs and Restoration Interior Design Office Furniture and Partitions Interior Design Partitions Interior Design Accessories.

More Blue Diamond Group Dubai, founded in 1995 by Mr. . . .

January 30, 2022 - No Comments!

Breach of Contract Claims Is an Example of What Type of Risk

Please note, however, that there is no hypothesis of risk if the applicant does not understand the danger due to age or inexperience. See Cote v. Palmer, 16 A.2d 595 (Conn. 1940). While voluntary participation in a sporting event is considered risk-taking, participation in the sporting event is not considered to take the risk that an opponent will flagrantly violate the rules of the event and cause serious injury. So how do you make the difference, and how does the investigator clarify that? With the principles of the Treaties, of course. Remember that in order to assert a contractual claim, the moving party must prove a breach and the resulting damages. While the moving party can rely on sufficient facts to prove these elements, the defendant can still prove that the moving party did not fulfill its own contract promise and did so first. For example, the terms of the contract can only allow the parties to initiate mediation or arbitration to resolve a problem. There may also be a time limit or procedure that the parties must follow before they can sue. If a contract is broken, there will be an infringing party and a non-infringing party.

The procedure for the two groups will be different. In addition, both parties are encouraged to waive the transaction or mutually agree to cancel the contract if the anticipated costs to each party in performing a contract exceed the expected benefits. This may be the case if the relevant market conditions or other conditions change during the course of the contract. Here are some different things a court will consider to determine whether a breach was minor or material: A plaintiff, the person who brings a lawsuit in court alleging a breach of contract, must first prove that a contract existed between the parties. The plaintiff must also prove how the defendant – the one against whom a lawsuit or indictment is brought in court – failed to comply with the requirements of the contract. If the parties maintained the contract, the farmer would miss an opportunity to sell at higher prices, and the winemaker would suffer to pay more than he can afford, given what he would receive for the resulting wine at the new market price. Consumers would also be penalized; The evolution of the relative prices of grape jelly and wine indicates that consumers want more jelly and less wine. The manner, method or breach of a contract is simply the action that a party has taken or has not taken that has resulted in it not fulfilling its obligations under the agreement. The classification of the violation refers to the seriousness of the crime. Suppose a buyer has already paid for certain items to be shipped to them, but the company that owns the products never sends the order, refuses to do so, and keeps their money. The buyer can then bring an action for breach of contract and claim damages from the seller, or he can then demand the replacement of the missing goods. Example (2): If a service is provided monthly and the recipient says that he will not pay for a month, but still expects the service, it would be a premature breach of contract.

Not all infringement scenarios require legal assistance or judicial intervention to resolve the problem. For example, if the other party is a friend or neighbor and the terms of the contract refer to something of little value, then you should try to solve all the problems between them. This can save you time, money and your relationship. Ideally, when a commercial contract is formed, both parties would delay their end of business, both parties would reap the agreed benefits, and no dispute would arise. However, we don`t live in a perfect world, and achieving effective contract management can be hampered by a variety of issues. In Michigan and elsewhere, the law has long required that the party who commits the first material breach of contract cannot sue for non-performance of the other party. This rule of law is important because conventional disputes are often an exchange of blows, with each side blaming the other when promises are broken. The court will assess whether or not there was a legal reason for the violation. For example, the defendant could claim that the contract was fraudulent because it had distorted or concealed essential facts. The easiest way to prove the existence of a contract is a written document signed by both parties. It is also possible to execute an oral contract, although some types of agreements still require a written contract to have legal weight. These types of contracts include the sale of property for more than $500, the sale or transfer of land, and contracts that remain in effect more than one year after the date the parties sign the agreement ..

. . .

January 30, 2022 - No Comments!

Blank Lease Addendum Form

Addendum to the pool and spa lease – If the tenant is allowed access to a pool or spa, this addendum includes the conditions and responsibility for its maintenance. Step 3 – A description of the changes that will be applied to the lease must be recorded. An active lease where you are registered as a tenant may be considered "proof of residence" if presented to certain establishments. With that in mind, different states have different quotas for the time you need to be present within the state`s borders to be considered an official resident (usually about six (6) months per year). Each state in the United States has its own rules and regulations regarding landlord-tenant relations. See the table below for more information about your state`s rental laws. Common rent violations include unpaid rents and electricity bills, damage to the property, and the tenant who breaks the law. Rental Application – To find qualified tenants, landlords will usually distribute this document to interested parties. It requires applicants to disclose certain information about their past rentals, current activities and general financial situation. Use a commercial lease if you are renting an office building, retail space, restaurant, industrial facility, or property where the tenant will operate a business.

The following standard residential lease works for all states except California, Florida, and Washington, DC. Additional rental models allow a landlord or tenant to make changes to a current residential or commercial lease. Instead of changing the actual lease, an addendum is a document that is added to a lease and describes the changes agreed upon in advance. Once both parties have accepted the addendum, each party must sign the document to make it legally binding. The residential lease addendum is an agreement that is added to a residential lease after the initial contract is signed. Unlike an amendment that acts as an amendment to the original lease, an addendum only adds additional rules, conditions or conditions to the previous agreement and does not involve renegotiating existing terms. This particular form can be used to add terms to an existing lease and provide written documents for an oral agreement between the landlord and the tenant. In preparing such a document, both parties or one of the parties are assured that the agreement will be maintained. If a tenant violates a lease, the landlord can try to resolve the issue by giving them the opportunity to fix it (unless the violation is serious, for example. B by using property to sell or manufacture illegal drugs).

If the issue is not resolved within a certain period of time (as determined by state law), the landlord can begin the eviction process to evict the tenant. Use a lease to give the tenant the opportunity to purchase the property at the end of the contract. This type of lease helps a tenant who can`t buy a property right away and allows the seller to get a stable income. If you are a new owner of a property or if you become an owner, you must know the details of the lease. To get professional help, it`s best to hire a lawyer for both the landlord and tenant to draft a lease for your property. If you want to rent your property yourself and write your own lease, follow the steps below. A lease allows a tenant to occupy rooms in exchange for paying rent to the landlord. Before approving a lease, the landlord can request credit and general information from the tenant to ensure they can afford the rent. In addition, the landlord may require a deposit, which is usually equivalent to one (1) or two (2) months` rent, in the event that the tenant fails to meet their obligations under the contract. Payment is usually due on the first (1st) of the month, with late payment fees or eviction proceedings that can begin if the tenant is in default.

Condominium Lease – If the leased property is subject to the rules and regulations of a condominium corporation, the owner of the unit can complete this form with the potential tenant. Whether you are an experienced landlord or a beginner, you can use these resources and guides to understand in simple terms what the law says about leases and leases: Subletting – For a tenant who wants to rent their home to someone else (the "subtenant"). The landlord usually has to agree, as most standard leases prohibit the deed of subletting. A disclosure is a statement that provides the recipient (usually the tenant) with specific information about the rental property. Most of the time, these are presented because local or state laws require it. An addendum to the lease agreement or "addendum to a lease agreement" is a document that extends a section or clause of a lease agreement and contains more information about it. For example, it may include a section in a rental agreement about certain "pet" rules and refer to an attached "pet supplement" that lists the rulebook. With some additives, such as the lead-based paint additive, the tenant cannot enter the property until it has been signed and should therefore be required before access. To attract interested parties, you need to inform the public that you have a house available for rent (be it an apartment, apartment, house, etc.). The most effective way to do this these days would be to advertise on a popular real estate website. The main platforms are: Once a lease has been signed by both parties, it becomes a legally binding document.

(There is no need for certified cookies or certifications.) Applicable law – This term is a common clause included in a lease that indicates that the tenancy is subject to the local laws of the state. You need a lease because it explains your responsibilities as a landlord, sets rules for tenants living in your property, and is often mandated by state law. A lease will help you avoid disputes with your tenants and resolve issues when they arise. Next, you need to check the references that the tenant provided in their rental application form mentioned in step 2 above. The answer to this question depends on the content of the lease. Given this information, the landlord may have the following options: Use a land lease to lease land that does not have property. A land or hereditary lease can have several purposes, including agriculture, residential and commercial. Although it is much less common for a property to be occupied by a tenant without a lease, it is still something that happens and needs to be dealt with by the owners. .

January 29, 2022 - No Comments!

Best Child Custody Lawyer in Ga

Georgia`s family laws, which govern property division, child support, and child custody, all favor the parent who has taken the position of primary caregiver in the past. Gender is not the deciding factor that determines which parent is allowed to spend time with and care for their children. If you are committed to caring for your children, we are your greatest advocate inside and outside the courtroom. This amount of "combined adjusted income" is used to create a "table of child support obligations in Georgia" that helps determine a "basic child support obligation," which is then applied to each parent`s proportional share of the combined adjusted income. In total, the process of calculating child support involves approximately nine distinct steps. A childcare plan in Georgia can be as simple or as complex as it is necessary to adapt to your family`s situation. Schedules can include mid-week tours, alternate and extended weekends, and more. Questions such as who will have the children for holidays and birthdays also need to be clarified. "The best divorce lawyers in Atlanta for a reason. I am very grateful to them for that.

I found everyone very understanding and supportive. And smart. Alex Smith If you commit to taking responsibility for your child`s education and upbringing, our fathers` rights lawyers will be your lawyer in the courtroom, whether you are seeking an initial custody decision or are involved in a custody dispute. We help fathers obtain primary custody as well as extended visitation rights. Siemon Law Firm offers its clients high quality legal advice and professional legal representation. In addition, this firm has highly experienced lawyers who offer their clients detailed legal approaches that address their clients` individual legal concerns. In addition, they offer prior legal advice in order to correctly determine their clients` individual goals and turn them into reality. Second, this law firm has friendly staff to assist its clients in their legal investigations and filing processes. In addition, this company aims to facilitate the family transition with integrity.

Finally, her areas of practice include family law, custody, mediation and much more. Meriwether & Tharp, LLC specializes in providing its clients with professional family disputes. Basically, this company has a friendly staff that takes care of its clients` concerns and requests regarding their legal services. Then, they offer their clients free legal advice to identify and collect optimal strategies that meet their needs. In addition, this company deals with a full range of family laws such as custody, asset allocation, family allowances and maintenance. In addition, professional lawyers take care of all their legal specializations, who are very knowledgeable and experienced in providing high-quality legal representation in family law. Confused? It`s easy to get lost in the complex rules and policies that determine how much child support is owed to you and your child. The lawyers at Kitchens New Cleghorn, LLC will help you review your finances and answer any questions you may have about how to get child support. We will work hard to ensure that the court has the best information available when making its decision on child support in Fulton County. Lawyer Diane Cherry understands that custody cases are often very emotional and can be of great importance to our clients and their children. We make sure that each client understands the strengths and weaknesses of their particular case so that they can make the best parental custody decision for themselves and their family.

"I really enjoyed working with Terri Herron. She is authentic, honest and direct. Brainstorming with her feels like you`re partnering with someone who has your best interest in their heart and refuses to allow you to settle for less. "– Sarah G. Consult with the experienced lawyers at Kitchens New Cleghorn, LLC to help you create a comprehensive custody and visitation plan that allows you to maximize their time and commitment to your child`s life. A dish will use these factors, among others, to decide where your children should spend the most time. Many fathers assume that the courts will favor mothers in custody cases. However, Georgian courts are just as likely to give a father custody of the children as they are to a mother. At Siemon Law Firm, our lawyers have managed to secure primary custody of fathers in situations where this has been an appropriate outcome. If you are considering filing a divorce, a change of parenting plan, an application for non-parental custody, a paternity case or any other family law lawsuit related to child custody, we invite you to contact The Cherry Law Firm today. Factors that a Georgia court may consider when adjusting your child support obligation include: When determining what is in the best interests of a child during your divorce, Georgia custody grants a court a high degree of discretion, and a judge may consider many different factors.

Some of these factors are: Naggiar & Zarif strives to provide its clients with effective legal action regarding family and divorce concerns. Second, this law firm offers its clients a variety of different legal disciplines that they can manage. In addition, her legal specializations include divorce, custody relocation, child support and many other family law services. Basically, this company offers its clients customized legal strategies to properly address their individual legal issues and concerns. In addition, they have competent legal specialists who aim to provide their clients with outstanding and professional legal representation. .

January 29, 2022 - No Comments!

Basement Rental Agreement Sample

Next, you need to check the references that the tenant provided in their rental application form mentioned in step 2 above. Landlords who use LawDepot`s residential lease have the option to choose a standard or full agreement. A comprehensive agreement offers more options and legal protection than a standard agreement. Once the lease is completed and signed, give the tenant the keys so that he can move into the property. A lease is a legally binding contract between a landlord and a tenant that sets out the conditions under which the tenant can rent a property to the landlord. B for example the duration of the lease, the monthly amount of rent and maintenance obligations. Use a short-term lease to rent out your property for a short period of time (usually between 1 and 31 days), most often as a vacation rental. A short-term rental agreement explains to guests the rules of their stay and what to expect upon arrival. Easily prepare your letter to shorten your lease with this PDF template for early lease termination. Just fill in some necessary details, download them, print them! This is also easily customizable. Typically, landlords charge a small, non-refundable fee from the tenant to process the rental application.

Provide the renter with the terms and conditions using this boat rental agreement. This document protects both parties from any liability during the rental period. With a lease, landlords can declare that they are renting a room rather than an entire unit. With a lease for rooms, landlords can rest assured that tenants understand their rights and obligations, including the amount of rent, when it is due, which areas of the property they can access, and more. A successful California lease agreement template should include the following essential information: property, landlord, and tenant details; Rental information indicating the monthly amount of the rental, the due date of payment, the deposit and the method of payment; Signature of both parties, general conditions of the owner. You can further support your initial lease by changing the terms by modifying the lease. In addition, you can terminate an existing lease with a termination letter or extend a lease with a lease extension for another term. Thank you, David. You`re right, the rental example should come from DC.

I have an idea of the clauses that should be included in the lease. I`ll Be Googled for DC-specific written samples – in the meantime, if anyone in DC has one, share it with me! Use a standard lease to lease a residential property for a fixed period of one year. This agreement contains the most important and common clauses and can be used for a house, apartment, studio, apartment, duplex, townhouse, basement or mobile home. Standard leases vary by state, so be sure to check the requirements for your property. Once you have agreed on the rental price, the tenant must complete a rental application. This form helps the tenant show that they are trustworthy and contains information like yours: this type of lease also allows the landlord to add a deposit or fee for pets, and includes information about a guarantor (i.e. a third party, such as a relative or close friend, who agrees to cover financial obligations, if the tenant is late on the rent). If you have never had the opportunity to enter into a rental and lease agreement, we list some of the most important details you need to request and disclose in your contract - The premises (whether it is a house, apartment, condominium, basement or attic), the contact details of the owner and tenant, the amount of money the tenant paid to the landlord, and the length of time the tenant has the right to remain on the premises. You must also include clauses for terms and conditions and signature widgets, which must be signed by both parties. Use a sublet to rent a property (or just a room) if you are already renting the property from another owner. For example, you can sublet a property if you need to move but don`t want to break your lease.

The Virginia Standard Residential Lease Agreement is a fundamental legally binding lease between the tenant and the landlord that defines the terms of the contract for the tenant. Tenants should be sure to review all sections of the document before signing an agreement. If for any reason the tenant is unsure of the language of the agreement, he may consider contacting a competent lawyer for clarification and/or legal advice. You need a lease because it explains your responsibilities as a landlord, sets rules for tenants living in your property, and is often mandated by state law. A lease will help you avoid disputes with your tenants and resolve issues when they arise. Use a monthly lease if you don`t want to commit to renting your property for a full year or more, but still need to protect your rights. Using a monthly lease allows you (and your tenant) to be flexible. A lease is a contract between an owner and the tenant in which they describe their conditions of renting a property.

A commercial lease is specific to tenants who use the property for commercial or residential purposes, depending on the type of property rented. However, some agreements are very detailed, which would sometimes turn away the supposed tenants. The solution, make it easy. So if you place it on a single page, it is not only easier to read, but also more acceptable to the parties involved. A lease is a document that describes the agreement between an owner of a property, known as an "owner" or "owner," and someone else who is willing to pay rent while occupying the property, known as a "tenant" or "tenant." Simply put, it is a document used to occupy a space (professional or private) for a certain period of time in exchange for a monthly rent. The terms of the contract are negotiable between the tenant and the landlord and after signing, the form is considered legally and mutually binding. This model equipment rental agreement serves as a written legal document setting out the terms, responsibilities and obligations of the owner and tenant when renting the equipment. Maybe you`re in a hurry to settle in and you`re looking at our online lease. However, it is not wise to complete and sign the lease form before reading the rental laws in effect in the state of Virginia Whether you are an experienced landlord or for the first time, you can use these resources and guides to understand in simple terms what the law says about leases and leases: you can use this template for the lease, to collect information about events and billing. .

January 28, 2022 - No Comments!

Auto Lease Agreement Form

7.17 The renter undertakes not to sublet the vehicle. Vehicle rentals allow you to use the vehicle for a certain period of time in exchange for regular cash payments. With a lease, you never own the vehicle - at the end of the contract period, you must return it to the rental company. The renter undertakes to maintain at his own expense the vehicle in good condition, repair, maintenance and working order and in accordance with all the requirements of the manufacturer and the warranty. The renter is responsible for all costs incurred as part of the normal wear and tear of the vehicle. The Renter also undertakes to meet the requirements of the Lessor for the maintenance of the vehicle, such as. B tire rotation and replacement, air filter replacement, replacement of hoses, clamps, belts, spark plugs and oil changes. CONSIDERING that this Agreement is a pure rental agreement and that the Renter has no right, title or interest in the Vehicle, except for the use of the Vehicle as described in this Agreement, this Customizable Vehicle Rental Agreement contains the terms and conditions and payment options found in most Vehicle Rental Agreements, so that the Lessor and the Tenant are able to: easily agree on fair, reasonable and beneficial conditions for both. Having some information before you start can speed up the process: the vehicle manufacturer`s recommended retail price, the residual value of the car (the expected price of the car at the end of the lease term), and your state`s local sales and use tax rate. Just answer a few simple questions and you can create your car rental in minutes.

7.19 The Renter undertakes to immediately inform the police, the Lessor and the Insurance Company if the vehicle is stolen or if there is a suspicion of theft. It is recommended to use a vehicle rental agreement when a vehicle lease is negotiated between two parties if no dealer rental form has been provided. For example, you can use a car rental agreement if you rent a car or truck from a friend or family member. The Lessor and the Renter agree that at the end of the term of this lease, the total cost of the rental will be $[insert amount], without the cost of repairing excessive wear and tear of the vehicle. This sum is based on the following provisions: Residential Lease This Rental Agreement (hereinafter referred to as the "Agreement") was concluded and concluded on that date by , 20 , by and between , whose address (hereinafter referred to as "Owner") and (hereinafter referred to as "Owner"). The Lessor and the Renter agree on the following amount due upon signature of the rental agreement, on the basis of these Conditions: Vehicle Sales Contract This Vehicle Purchase Agreement is concluded today by , 20 , by and between (hereinafter referred to as "Seller") and , by (hereinafter referred to as "Buyer"). Buyers and Sellers are collectively referred to herein as "the Parties". If the Renter fails to pay an amount due under this Agreement or fails to comply with any of the obligations contained in this Agreement, the Lessor may terminate this Agreement in writing with [insert number of days] days and exercise all remedies under applicable law. 1.9 The title names in this car rental agreement are for reference only and are not part of the contract. Draft or sign a new agreement; (ii) is required by local rent control legislation;. c. (i) the Lessor delivers a declaration of condition (c.a.r.

formular mimo) to the Tenant within 3 days of the conclusion of this Contract; earlier. If you are looking for a new car or truck, you may find that renting a vehicle is a better option for you than buying. There can be a lot to follow when negotiating a lease for a car, and even more to follow when the deal is made. A vehicle rental agreement collects all the essential information in a single document so that the lessor and the renter are aware of what is expected during the rental of the vehicle. The renter must maintain auto liability insurance in the form of applicable coverage for bodily injury and property damage, as well as collision insurance and comprehensive insurance, as required by state law [Insert State]. Proof of insurance or insurance card must be presented to the owner upon request. The renter is responsible for insuring the vehicle on the basis of its total value. The landlord is named in the insurance policy as a registered owner and as an "additional insured" and claims payer. A vehicle rental agreement also lists all the penalties associated with terminating the lease before the end of the term. Early termination penalties may include payment of the balance of remaining lease payments as well as additional charges. Once the rental is over, the renter must return the vehicle to the lessor. The vehicle must be in good condition, without excessive internal wear, significant mechanical damage and breakage, otherwise the renter must pay for repairs.

The renter does not have the possibility to purchase the rented vehicle by leasing. Below is the standard form used when renting a car. Scroll through the numbers to see an explanation for each section. (Use our rental glossary for terms you don`t know) A vehicle lease is a document used to reflect a contract between a vehicle owner, called the lessor, and someone who pays the owner to own and use the vehicle for a predetermined period of time, called a renter. A vehicle rental contract is most often used with new and used cars, trucks and motorcycles. However, the agreement can also be used with any other motor vehicle with a Vehicle Identification Number (VIN) and license plate. The use of a vehicle rental agreement protects both parties from misunderstandings or misunderstandings that may arise during the term of the lease by providing written documentation of the rental terms. The failure of either party to enforce any provision of this Agreement shall not be construed as a waiver or limitation of that party`s right to enforce and enforce strict compliance with all provisions of this Agreement retrospectively. A vehicle rental is a legal document that records the terms of a vehicle rental signed by a vehicle owner (the lessor) and a customer (the lessee). The renter must pay for the temporary use of the vehicle for a negotiated period.

Any motor vehicle may be leased under this Contract provided that it has a vehicle identification number and license plate. Taxi Vehicle Rental Agreement This Agreement is signed on that day beginning on , 20 , between Taxi Services, Inc. a company whose registered office is located at 4525 East University Drive, Phoenix, Arizona 85034 (hereinafter referred to as the "Company") and ,. At the end of the vehicle rental period, the renter returns the vehicle to the lessor or, if the option is given, agrees to purchase the vehicle. If the renter decides to purchase the vehicle, his lease payments will be credited to the total purchase price. This Lease Agreement constitutes the entire agreement between the parties. An amendment or addition to this lease is only effective if it is made in writing and signed by both parties. (b) If the Renter does not agree with the value assigned to the Vehicle, the Renter may, at his own expense, obtain from an independent third party acceptable to both parties a professional assessment of the value of the Rented Vehicle that could be made at the time of sale.

The estimate is then used as the actual value. If the landlord sues the tenant, the tenant must prove that the initial estimate of the value of the leased property at the end of the rental period was reasonable and was made in good faith. For example, the lessor could prove that the actual value was lower than the initial estimate, although the initial estimate was reasonable for this type of vehicle due to an unforeseen impairment loss. The landlord must also pay the legal fees. Vehicle leases, like other general-purpose leases and sales agreements in the United States, are generally subject to both federal and state-specific laws, which cover general contractual principles such as incorporation and mutual understanding. Federal law states that a vehicle rental agreement must include a disclosure of the vehicle`s mileage at the time of rental by the lessor. In addition, state laws cover business transactions and businesses. In Louisiana, Maryland, Nebraska, Wyoming, and West Virginia, for example, a vehicle rental agreement must be certified by a notary. If you need to create your own vehicle rental template, you can upload one of the following templates or create a more customized document using our online form builder.

Motor vehicle rental agreement Name of the lessee: Co-tenant Name: Owner Name: Address: Address: Address: Address: Rental date: Membership number: Rental number: This car rental contract, which is called leasing, is a closed lease which is the leasing of. Any controversy or claim relating to this Agreement, including the construction or enforcement of this Agreement, shall be resolved by binding arbitration under the rules of the American Arbitration Association or similar dispute resolution service, and any judgment rendered by the arbitrator(s) may be enforced in any court of competent jurisdiction. The lessor is entitled to offer the renter the purchase of the vehicle. If the tenant agrees to do so, the lease payments are included in the total purchase price. If you choose to terminate the lease before the end of the term, you may be subject to penalties for early termination, including payment of the rest of the lease payments with additional fees and charges. A vehicle rental agreement is a contract between a vehicle owner (lessor) and someone who pays the owner to take possession of the vehicle for a predetermined period of time (lessee). The lease payment, which is usually paid monthly, consists of a vehicle depreciation commission, a financing commission similar to the interest on a car loan, and all relevant sales taxes. Residential lease 1. Identification of the parties and premises This contract is concluded and concluded on that day by , 20 , between the following persons named: (hereinafter referred to as "Tenant") and (hereinafter referred to as "Owner"). .

January 28, 2022 - No Comments!

Association Rule Mining Support and Confidence Example

The `Iris` record is loaded with the Retrieve operator. A breakpoint is inserted here so that you can view the ExampleSet. As you can see, the ExampleSet has real attributes. Therefore, the FP growth operator cannot be applied directly to it because the FP growth operator requires all attributes to be binomial. We need to perform preprocessing to get the ExampleSet in the desired form. The Diskretize by Frequency operator is applied to replace the actual attributes with nominal attributes. Then, the Nominal to Binominal operator is applied to replace these nominal attributes with binomial attributes. Finally, the FP Growth operator is applied to generate common item sets. The sets of common elements generated by the FP growth operator are provided to the Create Association Rules operator. The resulting mapping rules can be displayed in the Results workspace. Run this process with different values for different parameters to better understand this operator. Although the concepts behind association rules date back to earlier, the exploration of association rules was defined in the 1990s when computer scientists Rakesh Agrawal, Tomasz Imieliński and Arun Swami developed an algorithm-based method for finding relationships between items using point-of-sale (POS) systems.

By applying the algorithms to supermarkets, the scientists were able to discover links between different purchased items called association rules, and eventually use this information to predict the likelihood of different products being purchased together. It should be remembered that one of the disadvantages of confidence measurement is that it tends to distort the meaning of an association. To demonstrate this, we`ll go back to the main dataset to select 3 association rules that contain beer: If you`re using association rules, you`re probably just using support and trust. However, this means that you must simultaneously adhere to minimum custom support and minimal custom simultaneity. Typically, the generation of association rules is divided into two different steps that must be applied: K-optimal pattern recognition offers an alternative to the standard approach to learning association rules, where each model must appear frequently in the data. Searching for association rules can be computationally intensive and essentially involves finding all the sets of coverage attributes A and then testing whether the rule "A implies B" applies with sufficient certainty to a set of attributes B distinct from A. Efficiency gains can be achieved by combinatorial analysis of information from previous runs to remove unnecessary rules from the candidate rule list. Another very effective approach is to use random samples from the database to estimate whether a set of attributes is covered or not.

In a large data set, it may be necessary to determine which rules the user is interested in. One approach is to use models to describe the form of interesting rules. A first use (circa 1989) of minimal support and trust to find all association rules is the Feature Based Modeling Framework, which found all rules with s u p p ( X ) {displaystyle mathrm {supp} (X)} and c o n f ( X ⇒ Y ) {displaystyle mathrm {conf} (XRightarrow Y)} larger than custom constraints. [24] Analyze the database and calculate each candidate`s support for common item sets. Programmers use association rules to create programs that enable machine learning. Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence (AI) that attempts to create programs that can become more effective without being explicitly programmed. If you find that sales of items that exceed a certain share tend to have a significant impact on your profits, you can use that share as a support threshold. You can then identify item sets with support values above this threshold as meaningful item sets. The analysis of the elements that often occur together is supported by two measures that give an indication of the value of a model and should be further studied. Taking into account a database containing information on asset replacement, the analysis can be carried out to determine which groups of assets are normally replaced together and which assets should be present in the group. Missing resources in the system can be detected by requesting resources at each physical location from the GIS and comparing this list to the group`s resource list.

Two measures that support this analysis to determine asset groups are trust and support. For example, a confidence value of 70% indicates that if asset A is replaced, there is a 70% probability that asset B will also be replaced. The support metric indicates the percentage of transactions in the database that support this statement. For example, a support score of 20% means that of all transactions in the database, 20% showed that assets A and B were replaced together. Typically, thresholds are set to display only the most meaningful models, rather than all models with low trust and support values. In addition, the set of articles Y = { m i l k , b r e a d , b u t t e r } {displaystyle Y={mathrm {milk,bread,butter} }} has a support of 1 / 5 = 0.2 {displaystyle 1/5=0.2}, as it also appears in 20% of all transactions. Here are some real use cases for association rules: To illustrate the concepts, let`s use a small example from the supermarket field. Table 2 shows a small database of items, with a value of 1 in each entry representing the presence of the item in the corresponding transaction and a value of 0 representing the absence of an item in that transaction.

The set of articles is I = { m i l k , b r e a d , b u t t e r , b e r , d i a p e r s , e g g s , f are you i t } {displaystyle I={mathrm {milk, bread, butter, beer, diapers, eggs, fruits} }}. This information can be used as a basis for making decisions regarding marketing activities such as prices. B advertising or product placements. In addition to the shopping cart analysis example above, association rules are now used in many application areas, including web usage exploration, intrusion detection, and bioinformatics. Shaded lines represent sets of items whose number of supports does not meet the threshold requirement. Rules of association that predict multiple consequences should be interpreted with sufficient caution. For example, in the weather data in Table 1.2, we saw this rule: Add the sets of elements that meet the minimum support requirement to Fk+1. A mapping rule maps the values of a particular set of attributes to the value of another attribute outside that set. In addition, the rule can contain information about how often attribute values are linked to each other.

For example, such a rule could state that "75% of men aged 50 to 55 complete supplementary pension plans in management positions." Let X , Y {displaystyle X,Y} of the item sets, X ⇒ Y {displaystyle XRightarrow Y} is an association rule, and T is a set of transactions from a particular database. To order the most interesting rules, the lift index is also used to measure the (symmetric) correlation between the precursor and the later extracted rules. Elevation of an association rule (X → Y) = c(X → Y)}/s(Y) = s(X → Y)/s(X)s(Y), where s(X → Y) and c(X → Y) are respectively the support and trust of the rule, and s(X) and s(Y) are the supports of the preceding and subsequent rules. If Lift (X,Y) = 1, the sets of elements X and Y are not correlated, that is, they are statistically independent. Lifting values below 1 show a negative correlation between element sets X and Y, while values above 1 indicate a positive correlation. Interest in rules with a buoyancy value close to 1 may be marginal. A classic example of exploring association rules refers to a relationship between layers and beers. The example, which appears to be fictitious, claims that men who go to a store to buy diapers are also likely to buy beer. The data that suggests this might look like this: Association rules are "if-then" statements that help show the probability of relationships between data elements within large data sets in different types of databases. Association Rule Mining has a number of applications and is often used to detect revenue correlations in transactional data or in medical records.

The extraction of frequently closed sets of items was proposed in Pasquier, Bastide, Taouil and Lakhal [PBTL99], where an Apriori-based algorithm called A-Close was presented for such mining. CLOSET, an efficient closed object extraction algorithm based on the method of frequent model growth, was proposed by Pei, Han and Mao [PHM00]. CHARM by Zaki and Hsiao [ZH02] has developed a compact vertical TID list structure called Diffset, which only records the difference in a candidate model`s TID list compared to its prefix model. .

January 28, 2022 - No Comments!

Article 2.1 C Paris Agreement

Although the agreement was welcomed by many, including French President François Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon,[67] criticism also surfaced. For example, James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the deal is made up of "promises" or goals, not firm commitments. [98] He called the Paris talks a fraud "without deeds, only promises" and believes that a simple flat tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris Agreement, would reduce CO2 emissions fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming. [98] The second climate change agreement was the 1997 Kyoto Protocol, which introduced a sophisticated regulatory system to limit emissions from Annex I Parties. The important elements of the regulatory approach of the Kyoto Protocol were as follows: In order to achieve these targets, Article 4 sets out a number of legal obligations for the parties, including: The implementation of the agreement by all member countries is evaluated every 5 years, with the first assessment taking place in 2023. The result will serve as a contribution to new Nationally Determined Contributions by Member States. [30] The assessment is not a contribution/achievement of individual countries, but a collective analysis of what has been achieved and what still needs to be done. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its sixteenth meeting in Cancún from 29 November to 10 December 2010, Part II: Actions of the Conference of the Parties at its sixteenth meeting (FCCC/CP/2010/7/Add.2, 15 March 2011). Statement by Mr. Ban Ki-moon, Secretary-General of the United Nations, Durban, South Africa, 6 December 2011. Report of the Conference of the Parties on its seventeenth meeting in Durban from 28 November to 11 December 2011, part two: Actions of the Conference of the Parties at its seventeenth session (FCCC/CP/2011/9/Add.1, 15 March 2012). Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the first part of its first meeting, held in Bonn from 17 to 25 May 2012 (FCCC/ADP/2012/2, 6 July 2012). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its eighteenth meeting in Doha, 26 November-8 December 2012, part two: Actions of the Conference of the Parties at its eighteenth meeting (FCCC/CP/2012/8/Add.1, 28 February 2013).

Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the first and second parts of its second meeting, held in Bonn from 29 April to 3 May 2013 and from 4 to 13 June 2013 (FCCC/ADP/2013/2, 30 July 2013). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its nineteenth meeting in Warsaw from 11 to 23 November 2013, part two: Actions of the Conference of the Parties at its nineteenth session (FCCC/CP/2013/10/Add.1, 31 January 2014). Submission of Australia to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Enhanced Platform for Action (ADP) on the 2015 Agreement, May 2014. Presentation by Greece and the European Commission on behalf of the European Union and its Member States (Communication supported by Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro and Serbia), 28 May 2014. Submission of views on the work of ADP, Coalition for Rainforest Nations, 2 June 2014. African Capacity Building Group Intervention for the ADP Contact Group, 10 June 2014. Canada ADP Submission, June 2014. Submission of Mexico to the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Enhanced Platform for Action (ODA). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twentieth meeting in Lima, 1-14 December 2014, part two: Actions of the Conference of the Parties at its twentieth meeting (FCCC/CP/2014/10/Add.1, 2 February 2015). Ad Hoc Working Group on the Enhanced Durban Programme of Action, negotiating text, second meeting, part eight, 8-13 February 2015, Geneva (FCCC/ADP/2015/1, 25 February 2015). Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the eighth part of its second meeting in Geneva from 8 to 13 February 2015 (FCCC/ADP/2015/2, 1 April 2015). Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the ninth part of its second meeting in Bonn from 1 to 11 June 2015 (FCCC/ADP/2015/3, 11 August 2015).

Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Enhanced Durban Programme of Action on the tenth part of its second session, to be held from 31 to 4 August. September 2015 in Bonn (FCCC/ADP/2015/4, 8 October 2015). Draft agreement and draft decision on tracks 1 and 2 of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Bonn, 23 October 2015. Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the eleventh part of its second meeting in Bonn from 19 to 23 October 2015 (FCCC/ADP/2015/5, 20 November 2015). Report of the Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action on the twelfth part of its second meeting, held in Paris from 29 November to 5 December 2015 (FCCC/ADP/2015/6, 29 January 2016). Draft Outcome of Paris, Ad Hoc Working Group on the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action, Second Meeting, Part XII, Paris, 29 November to 5 December 2015 (FCCC/ADP/2015/L.6/Rev.1, 5 December 2015). Report of the Conference of the Parties on its twenty-first sessions, from 30 to 13 November. December 2015 in Paris, Part I: Consultations (FCCC/CP/2015/10, 29 January 2016). Conference of the Parties, twenty-first session, Paris, 30 November to 11 December 2015, adoption of the Paris Agreement, presidential proposal (FCCC/CP/2015/L.9/Rev.1, 12 December 2015). Further information and documents (including audio-visual) on the Paris Agreement are available on the official website of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. The negotiations that led to the Paris Agreement were launched in 2011 by the Durban Enhanced Programme of Action (Decision 1/CP.17).

The negotiations were motivated by the desire of some parties – in particular the European Union and small island developing states – to develop a legally binding agreement, unlike both the Copenhagen Accord, which was a political agreement, and the Cancun agreements, which were adopted as a decision of the COP and therefore had no legal value. The Durban Platform established an ad hoc working group (ADP) to negotiate a new instrument by 2015, but States could not agree on the legal form of the instrument, so the Durban Platform instead used the intentionally ambiguous phrase "a protocol, other legal instrument or agreed outcome with res judicata" (Decision 1/CP.17, by. 2). In contrast to the Berlin Mandate (decision 1/CP.1), which launched the negotiations on the Kyoto Protocol and detailed the content of the instrument to be negotiated (the 1995 Berlin Mandate, decision 1/CP.1, stipulated that the agreement to be negotiated set quantitative emission limitation targets for Annex I Parties and no new commitments for non-Annex I Parties), The Durban Platform defined the content of the Paris Agreement left completely open. .